Norse mythology includes the religion, beliefs and legends of the pre-Christian inhabitants of Scandinavia, including those who settled on the island of Iceland - where there is much written material of Norse mythology. The famous version of Norse mythology is that of the Germanic peoples, which arose from the legends of the pre-existing Indo-European peoples.
The religions of the Nordic peoples are not based on "truth" transmitted directly from gods to humans (although there are stories of mortals being visited by gods) and they do not have formal texts such as the Christian Holy Bible or the Quran Islam. Norse mythology is passed down orally in the form of long poems. The baseball jersey transmission of Norse religion was strongest during the Viking period. One learns about Norse mythology mainly through the Edda epics and extensive Christian records from Scandinavia. Norse mythology has a great influence on literary and artistic works.
Norse mythology survived mainly through oral transmission, so it was largely lost. However, all is not lost thanks to the writings of Christian scholars, especially the Eddas and Heimskringla by Snorri Sturluson, who believed that the devil is not the pre-Christian gods of Religion. Another notable work is the Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus. However, the Norse gods in this work have been extensively adapted to fit natural and historical events.
The Edda was written in prose in the early 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, an Icelandic poet, leader and diplomat. It is primarily considered a handbook for novice poets. The prose edda contains commentaries on traditional figures commonly used in poetry. Thanks to this work, fragmented stories in Norse mythology are told systematically and continuously.
The Poetic Edda is said to have appeared 50 years after the Prose Edda. It contains 29 long poems, with 11 talking about the gods, and the rest talking about legendary heroes such as Sigurd of the Volsung family (Sigfield in the German epic Nibelungenlied). Although scholars often assume that it was composed after the prose Edda, the style and poetic form of the work suggest that the poems contained therein were composed long before their manuscripts appeared.
In addition to the above documents, there are also runic inscriptions such as the inscriptions on the stone tablets in Rök and the Kvinneby amulet which are also valuable sources of research. There are also engravings and drawings showing scenes from Norse mythology such as Thor's fishing trip, scenes from the epic Volsunga, Odin and Sleipnir, Odin being swallowed by Fenrir, Hyrrokkin arriving at Baldr's funeral.
Universe in Norse Mythology
In Norse mythology, the Earth is a flat disc placed on the branch of the world tree Yggdrasil. Asgard, where the gods live, is located in the center of the disc. The only way to Asgard is the rainbow (or Bifröst bridge). The giants live in Jotunheimr (which means "land of the giants"). The dead go to a cold and dark place called Niflheim which is ruled by Hel, Loki's daughter. Somewhere in the south is the fiery Muspelheim, where fire giants live. Other supernatural countries are Álfheim – the kingdom of the white elves, Svartálfaheim – the kingdom of the black elves, Nidavellir – the kingdom of the dwarves. Between Asgard and Niflheim is Midgard (or Middle-earth), where humans live.
Contrast is an important element of Norse mythology's view of the universe. For example, the world is made of ice and fire.
There are three divine "clans" in Norse mythology: Aesir (Æsir), Vanir, and Jotun (called giants in this article). The difference between the two tribes Aesir and Vanir (collectively referred to as god) is only relative. There was a war between these two holy tribes, who won the side of Aesir. But they accepted a reconciliation to rule the world together and to keep the peace, both sides exchanged hostages and there were marriages between the members of the 3d shirt two clans. Some gods belong to both places. Some scholars speculate that this story reflects the process by which the Indo-European gods prevailed over the native gods. However, this is only an assumption. There are those who argue that the Aesir/Vanir distinction is merely a Norse version of the divine system of the Indo-European peoples, like the distinction between the Olympian gods and the Titans of Greek mythology.
The Aesir and the Vanir were often at enmity with the tribe of the Iotnar (individual Iotunn or Jotuns, in Old English Eotenas or Entas). This tribe is similar to the Titans and Gigantos in Greek mythology and is often referred to as giants, although some also call them demons. However, the Aesirs have Iotnar ancestry and have members of the Aesir and Vanir married to them. The names of some giants are mentioned in